....Research activity - Pål A. Olsvik




Professor, Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, Bodø


Contact address

Pål A. Olsvik

Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture

Nord University N-8049 Bodø, Norway

Mail: pal.a.olsvik@nord.no



Part-time position, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen

Pål A. Olsvik

Teaching and supervising

BIO5008 Ecotoxicology
Supervising Master and PhD students
  Research interests

My research interest is to study how environmental contaminants affect molecular mechanisms in fish and other organisms. During my early years as a scientist my research focused on heavy metals (Cd, Cu and Zn), and how elevated levels and speciation of these elements affect brown trout in mining-contaminated rivers in Norway.

As a researcher at NIFES from 2003 and onwards (merged with the Institute of Marine Research from 2018), the focus was on studying how chemicals found in aquafeed and seafood affect fish. Chemicals enriched in aquafeed, including heavy metals, various POPs like PCBs, dioxins, brominated flame retardants, and pesticides, may pose a health risk to fish. Studied fish species included Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, brown trout, Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, tusk and burbot, and zebrafish.

To reduce the number of experimental animals, in vitro methods were developed and used to test toxicity in fish. Cell cultures can be used as a model for studying fish nutrition and adverse effects of contaminants. Using hepatocytes isolated from salmon we established tools for seafood safety research. The fish cell models were also used in mixture toxicology research, to search for interaction effects between chemicals and between chemicals and nutrients. In recent years, we have also studied the impact of pesticides used against salmon lice infestation on non-target crustaceans such as lobster and shrimps found near the fish farms.

For the last decade or so, the main tool to study the impact of chemicals on fish and crustaceans has been toxicogenomics. Toxicogenomics is the study of the structure and function of the genome as it responds to cellular exposure to xenobiotics, and combines toxicology with genomics or other high-throughput molecular profiling technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The group is today routinely using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics methods to assess the mode of action of chemicals found in seafood.

In 2017, I joined Nord University. At Nord University, my research focuses on aquatic ecotoxicology, with special emphasis on environmental challenges associated with aquaculture. Currently I have running projects on microplastics and impact of aquaculture, and on impact of deposition of mine tailings in fjords on pelagic species such as copepods and fish larvae (the DiTail project).


  Peer-reviewed publications (Google Scholar)

• Varshney, S., O'Connor, O.L., Gora, A.H., Rehman, S., Kiron, V., Siriyappagouder, P., Dahle, D., Kögel, T., Ørnsrud, R., Olsvik, P.A., 2024. Mixture toxicity of 6PPD-quinone and polystyrene nanoplastics in zebrafish. Environmental Pollution, 2024, 348, 123835.

• Varshney, S., Hegstad-Pettersen, M.M., Siriyappagouder, P., Olsvik, P.A., 2024. Enhanced neurotoxic effect of PCB-153 when co-exposed with polystyrene nanoplastics in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere, 2024, 355, 141783.

• Solhaug, A., Olsvik, P.A., Siriyappagouder, P., Faller, R., Kristensen, T., 2024. Gill epithelial cell line ASG-10 from Atlantic salmon as a new research tool for solving water quality challenges in aquaculture. In Vitro Toxicology, 96:105790. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2024.105790.

Varshney, S., Lundås, M., Siriyappagouder, P., Kristensen, T., Olsvik, P.A., 2024. Ecotoxicological assessment of Cu-rich acid mine drainage of Sulitjelma mine using zebrafish larvae as an animal model. Ecotoxicololgy and Environmental Safety, Jan 1:269:115796, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2023.115796.

Piarullia, S., Riedel, J.A., Fossum, F.N., Kermen, F., Hansen, B.H., Kvæstad, B., Olsvik, P.A., Farkas, J., 2023. Effects of Gadolinium (Gd) and a Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.140950.

Olsvik, P.A., Brokke, K.E., Samuelsen, O.B., Hannisdal, R., 2023. Dietary lufenuron exposure temporarily repress gene expression and the SUMO pathway in liver of Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Diseases. DOI: 10.1111/jfd.13880.

• Farkas, J., Svendheim, L.H., Hansen, B.H., Altin, D., Nordtug, T., Olsvik, P.A., Jager, T., Øverjordet, I.B., 2023. Effects of mine tailing exposure on the development of early life stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2023.2274935.

• Gora, A.H., Rehman, S., Dias, J., Fernandes, J.M.O., Olsvik, P.A., Sørensen, M., Viswanath, K., 2023. Microbial oil, alone or paired with β-glucans, can control hypercholesterolemia in a zebrafish model. BBA Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2023.159383.

Olsvik, P.A., Meier, S., Zhang, X., Goksøyr, A., Karlsen, O.A., Yadetie, F., 2023. Environmentally realistic concentrations of chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants induce the unfolded protein response as a shared stress pathway in the liver of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2023 Aug 1. doi: 10.1002/jat.4519.

• Gora, A.H., Rehman, S., Dias, J., Fernandes, J.MO., Olsvik, P.A., Sørensen, M., Kiron, V., 2023. Protective mechanisms of a microbial oil against hypercholesterolemia: evidence from a zebrafish model. Frontiers in Nutrition, 2023, 10:1161119.

Varshney, S., Gora, A.H., Kiron, V., Siriyappagouder, P., Dahle, D., Kögel, T., Ørnsrud, R., Olsvik, P.A., 2023. Polystyrene nanoplastics enhance the toxicological effects of DDE in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Science of the Total Environment, 859, 160457. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160457.

• Rehman, S., Gora, A.H., Varshney, S., Dias, J., Olsvik, P.A., Fernandes, J.M.O., Brugman, S., Kiron, V., 2022. Developmental defects and behavioral changes in a diet-induced inflammation model of zebrafish. Frontiers in Immunology, 13:1018768. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1018768.

• Holen, E., Espe, M., Larsen, A.K., Olsvik, P.A., 2022. Dietary chlorpyrifos-methyl exposure impair transcription of immune-, detoxification- and redox signaling genes in leukocytes isolated from cod (Gadus morhua). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 127, 549–560.

• Abihssira-Garcia, I.S., Kogel, T., Gomiero, A., Kristensen, T., Krogstad, M., Olsvik, P.A., 2022. Distinct polymer-dependent sorption of persistent pollutants associated with Atlantic salmon farming to microplastics. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 180, 113794.

• Søfteland, L., Olsvik, P.A., 2022. In vitro toxicity of glyphosate in Atlantic salmon evaluated with a 3D hepatocyte-kidney co-culture model. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 164, 113012.

• Gora, A.H., Rehman, S., Kiron, V., Dias, J., Fernandes, J.M.O., Olsvik, P.A., Siriyappagouder, P., Vatsos, I., Schmid-Staiger, U., Frick, K., Pestana, P., 2022. Management of hypercholesterolemia through dietary ß-glucans – insights from a zebrafish model. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8:797452.

• Varunjikar, M.S., Moreno-Ibarguen, C., Andrade-Martinez, J.S., Tung, H.S., Belghit, I., Palmblad, M., Olsvik, P.A., Reyes, A., Rasinger, J.D., Lie, K.K., 2022. Comparing state-of-the-art shotgun DNA sequencing and proteomics approaches for species authentication in mixed fish products. Food Control, 131, 108417.

• Varshney, S., Gora, A.H., Siriyappagouder, P., Kiron, V., Olsvik, P.A., 2022. Toxicological effects of 6PPD and 6PPD quinone in zebrafish larvae. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 424, Part C, 127623.

• Farkas, J., Svendheim, L.H., Jager, T., Ciesielski, T., Nordtug, T., Kvæstad, B., Hansen, B.H., Kristensen, T., Olsvik, P.A., 2021. Exposure to low environmental copper concentrations does not affect survival and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) early life stages. Toxicology Research, 8, 1909-1916.

Olsvik, P.A., Sørhus, E., Meier, S., Torvanger, I., Thorbjørnsen, M., Thorsen, A., Sørensen, L., Fjelldal, P.G., Karlsen, Ø., Guimaraes, I.G., Lie, K.K., 2021. Ontogeny-specific skeletal deformities in Atlantic haddock caused by larval oil exposure. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 726828.

Piarulli, S., Hansen, B.H., Ciesielski, T., Zocher, A.L., Bau, M., Malzhan, A., Olsvik, P.A., Sonne, C., Jenssen, B.M., Nordtug, T., Booth, A.M., Farkas, J., 2021. Sources, distribution and effects of rare earth elements in the marine environment: Current knowledge and research gaps. Environmental Pollution, 291, 118230.

Goksøyr, S.Ø., Goldstone, J., Lille-Langøy, R., Lock. E.-J., Olsvik, P.A., Goksøyr, A., Karlsen, O.A., 2021. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons modulate the activity of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vitamin D receptor paralogs in vitro. Aquatic Toxicology, 238, 105914.

• Svendheim, L.H., Jager, T., Olsvik, P.A., Øverjordet, I.B., Ciesielski, T.M., Nordtug, T., Kristensen, T., Hansen, B.H., Kvæstad; B., Altin, D., Farkas, J. 2021. Investigating the effects of marine tailing exposure on the development, growth, and lipid accumulation of Calanus finmarchicus. Chemosphere, 282, 131051.

• Farkas, J., Nordtug, T., Svendheim, L.H., Amico, E.D., Davies, E.J., Ciesielski, T., Jenssen, B-M., Kristensen, T., Olsvik, P.A., Hansen, B.H., 2021. Effects of mine tailing exposure on early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Environmental Research, 200, 111447.

Olsvik, P.A., Azad, A.M., Yadetie, F., 2021. Bioaccumulation of mercury and transcriptional responses in tusk (Brosme brosme), a deep-water fish from a Norwegian fjord. Chemosphere 279, 130588.

• Abihssira-García, I.S., Park, Y., Kiron, V., Olsvik, P.A., 2020. Fluorescent microplastic uptake by immune cells of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8:560206. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2020.560206.

Meier, S., Karlsen, O., Le Goff, J., Sørensen, L., Sørhus, E., Pampanin, D.M., Donald, C.E., Fjelldal, P.G., Dunaevskaya, E., Romano, M., Caliani, I., Casini, S., Bogevik, A.S., Olsvik, P.A., Myers, M., Grøsvik, B.E., 2020. DNA damage and health effects in juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) exposed to PAHs associated with oil-polluted sediment or produced water. PLoS One 15, e0240307.

Olsvik, P.A., Finn, R.N., Remø, S.C., Fjelldal, P.G., Chauvigne, F., Glover, K.A., Hansen, T., Waagbø, R., 2020. A transcriptomic analysis of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon lenses with and without cataracts. Experimental Eye Research, 199, 108150.

Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., 2020. Mixture toxicity of chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, and nonylphenol in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hepatocytes. Toxicology Reports, 7, 547-558.

Park, Y., Abihssira-Garcia, I.S., Thalmann, S., Wiegertjes, G.F., Barreda, D.R., Olsvik, P.A., Kiron, V., 2020. Imaging flow cytometry protocols for examining phagocytosis of microplastics and bioparticles by immune cells of aquatic animals. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 203.

Olsvik, P.A., Hammer, S.K., Sanden, M., Søfteland, L., 2019. Chlorpyrifos-induced dysfunction of lipid metabolism is not restored by supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and ARA in Atlantic salmon liver cells. Toxicology In Vitro, 61, 104655

Olsvik, P.A., Larsen, A.K., Berntssen, M.H.G., Goksøyr, A., Karlsen, O.A., Yadetie, F., Sanden, M., Kristensen, T., 2019. Effects of agricultural pesticides in aquafeeds on wild fish feeding on leftover pellets near fish farms. Frontiers in Genetics, 10:794.

• Lie, K.K., Meier, S., Sørhus, E., Edvardsen, R,B., Karlsen, Ø., Olsvik, P.A., 2019. Offshore crude oil disrupts retinoid signaling and eye development in larval Atlantic haddock. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 368.

• Antony Jesu Prabhu, P., Lock, E.J., Hemre, G.I., Hamre, K., Espe, M., Olsvik, P.A., Silva, J., Hansen, A.C., Johansen, J., Sissener, N.H., Waagbø, R., 2019. Recommendations for dietary level of micro-minerals and vitamin D3 to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr and post-smolt when fed low fish meal diets. Peer J, 7, e6996.

Olsvik, P.A., Whatmore, P., Penglase, S.J., Skjærven, K.H., Anglès d’Auriac, M., Ellingsen, S., 2019. Associations between behavioral effects of bisphenol A and DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 184.

Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H.G., Søfteland, L., Sanden, M., 2019. Transcriptional effects of dietary chlorpyrifos-methyl exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) brain and liver. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D Genomics Proteomics 29, 43-54.

Olsvik, P.A., Aulin, M., Samuelsen, O.B., Hannisdal, R., Agnalt, A.L., Lunestad, B.T., 2019. Whole-animal accumulation, oxidative stress, transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the pink shrimp (Pandalus montagui) exposed to teflubenzuron. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 39, 485-497.

• Torvanger, I., Metz, J.R., Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., Lie, K.K., 2018. Benzo(a)pyrene reduces osteoclast and osteoblast activity in ex-vivo scales of zebrafish (Danio rerio [Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822]) and goldfish (Carassius auratus [Linnaeus, 1758]). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 34, 431–439.

• Sanden, M., Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., Rasinger, J.D., Rosenlund, G., Garlito, B., Ibáñez, M., Berntssen, M.H.G. 2018. Dietary pesticide chlorpyrifos-methyl affects arachidonic acid metabolism including phospholipid remodeling in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 484, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.10.033.

• Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., 2018. Metabolic effects of p,p'-DDE on Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 38, 489-503.

Olsvik, P.A., Skjærven, K.H., Søfteland, L. 2017. Metabolic signatures of bisphenol A and genistein in Atlantic salmon liver cells. Chemosphere. 189, 730-743.

• Berntssen, M.H.G., Sundal, T.K., Olsvik, P.A., Amlund, H., Rasinger, J.D., Sele, V., Hamre, K., Hillestad, M., Buttle, L., Ørnsrud, R. 2017. Sensitivity and toxic mode of action of dietary organic and inorganic selenium in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquatic Toxicology, 192, 116-126.

Olsvik, P.A., Lunestad, B.T., Agnalt, A.L., Samuelsen, O.B. 2017. Impact of teflubenzuron on the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C. Toxicology & Pharmacology, 201, 35-43.

• Remø, S.C., Hevrøy, E.M., Breck, O., Olsvik, P.A., Waagbø, R. 2017. Lens metabolomic profiling as a tool to understand cataractogenesis in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout reared at optimum and high temperature. PLoS ONE, 12, e0175491.

• Waagbø, R., Jørgensen, S.M., Timmerhaus, G., Breck, O., Olsvik, P.A. 2017. Short-term starvation at low temperature prior to harvest does not impact the health and acute stress response of adult Atlantic salmon. PeerJ, 5, e3273.

Olsvik, P.A., Fumière, O., Margry, R.J.C.F., Berben, G., Larsen, N., Alm, M., Berntssen, M.H.G. 2017. Multi-laboratory evaluation of a PCR method for detection of ruminant DNA in commercial processed animal proteins. Food Control, 73B, 140–146.

Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H., Søfteland, L. 2017. In vitro toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Toxicology In Vitro, 39, 1-14. 10.1016/j.tiv.2016.11.008.

• Hamre, K., Sissener, N.H., Lock, E.J., Olsvik, P.A., Espe, M., Torstensen, B.E., Silva, J., Johansen, J., Waagbø, R., Hemre, G.I. 2016. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids. PeerJ 4, e2688.

• Hemre, G.I., Lock, E.J., Olsvik, P.A., Hamre, K., Espe, M., Torstensen, B.E., Silva, J., Hansen, A.C., Waagbø, R., Johansen, J.S., Sanden, M., Sissener, N.H. 2016. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) require increased dietary levels of B-vitamins when fed diets with high inclusion of plant based ingredients. PeerJ 4, e2493.

• Berg, V., Kraugerud, M., Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R., Olsvik, P.A., Skare, J.U., Aleström, P., Ropstad, E., Zimmer, K.E., Lyche, J.L. 2016. Endocrine effects of real-life mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in experimental models and wild fish. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A 79, 538-548.

• Hansen, B.H., Lie, K.K., Størseth, T.R., Nordtug, T., Altin, D., Olsvik, P.A. 2016. Exposure of first-feeding cod larvae to dispersed crude oil results in similar transcriptional and metabolic responses as food deprivation. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A 79, 558-571.

Olsvik, P.A., Ulvund, J.B., Teien, H.C., Urke, H.A., Lie, K.K., Kristensen, T. 2016. Transcriptional effects of metal-rich acid drainage water from the abandoned Lokken Mine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A 79, 612-632.

• Søfteland, L., Berntssen, M.H.G., Kirwan, J.A., Størseth, T.R., Viant, M.R., Torstensen, B.E., Waagbø, R., Olsvik, P.A. 2016. Omega-3 and alpha-tocopherol provide more protection against contaminants in novel feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) than omega-6 and gamma tocopherol. Toxicology Reports, 3, 211–224.

Olsvik, P.A., Waagbø, R., Hevrøy, E.M., Remø, S.C., Søfteland, L. 2016. In vitro assessment of Hg toxicity in hepatocytes from heat-stressed Atlantic salmon. Biological Trace Element Research, doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0670-y.

• Holen, E., Olsvik, P.A. 2016. Beta-naphthoflavone interferes with cyp1c1, cox2 and IL-8 gene transcription and leukotriene B secretion in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) head kidney cells during inflammation. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 54, 128-134.

Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., Hevrøy, E.M., Rasinger, J.D., Waagbø, R., 2016. Fish pre-acclimation temperature only modestly affects cadmium toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Journal of Thermal Biology, 57, 21-34.

• Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H., Waagbø, R., Hevrøy, E., Søfteland, L. 2015. The mining chemical Polydadmac is cytotoxic but does not interfere with Cu-induced toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Toxicology In Vitro, doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2015.09.012.

• Olsvik, P.A., Samuelsen, O.B., Agnalt, A.L., Lunestad, B.T. 2015. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Aquatic Toxicology 167, 143-156.

• Olsvik, P.A., Urke, H.A., Nilsen, T.O., Ulvund, J.B., Kristensen, T. 2015. Effects of mining chemicals on fish: exposure to tailings containing Lilaflot D817M induces CYP1A transcription in Atlantic salmon smolt. BMC Research Notes 8, 389.

• Hevrøy, E.M., Tipsmark, C.K., Remø, S.C., Hansen, T., Fukuda, M., Torgersen, T., Vikesa, V., Olsvik, P.A., Waagbø, R., Shimizu, M. 2015. Role of the GH-IGF-1 system in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout postsmolts at elevated water temperature. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 188, 127-138.

Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H., Søfteland, L. 2015. Modifying effects of vitamin E on chlorpyrifos toxicity in Atlantic salmon. PLoS ONE 10, e0119250.

Olsvik, P.A., Amlund, H., Sæle, Ø., Ellingsen, S., Skjærven, K.H. 2015. Impact of dietary selenium on methylmercury toxicity in juvenile Atlantic cod: A transcriptional survey. Chemosphere, 120C, 199-205.

• Penglase, S., Hamre, K., Olsvik, P.A., Grotan, E., Nordgreen, A., 2015. Rotifers enriched with iodine, copper and manganese had no effect on larval cod (Gadus morhua) growth, mineral status or redox system gene mRNA levels. Aquaculture Research 46, 1793-1800.

• Søfteland, L., Kirwan, J.A., Hori, T.S.F., Størseth, T.R., Sommer, U., Berntssen, M.H.G., Viant, M.R., Rise, M.L., Waagbø, R., Torstensen, B.E., Booman, M., Olsvik, P.A. 2014. Toxicological effect of single contaminants and contaminant mixtures associated with plant ingredients in novel salmon feeds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 73, 157–174.

• Holen, E., Olsvik, P.A. 2014. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein and Cyp1A1 gene induction by LPS and phenanthrene in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) head kidney cells. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 40, 384-91.

Olsvik, P.A., Williams, T.D., Tung, H.S., Mirbahai, L., Sanden, M., Skjærven, K.H., Ellingsen, S. 2014. Impacts of TCDD and MeHg on DNA methylation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) across two generations. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology, 165, 17-27.

• Hamre, K., Penglase, S.J., Rasinger, J.D., Skjærven, K.H., Olsvik, P.A. 2014. Ontogeny of redox regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 73, 337-348.

• Skjærven, K.H,, Hamre, K., Penglase, S., Finn, R.N., Olsvik, P.A. 2014. Thermal stress alters expression of genes involved in one carbon and DNA methylation pathways in Atlantic cod embryos. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular Integrety and Physiology, 173C, 17-27.

Olsvik, P.A., Ørnsrud, R., Lunestad, B.T., Steine, N., Fredriksen, B.N. 2014. Transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to deltamethrin, alone or in combination with azamethiphos. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology, 162, 23-33.

• Remø, S.C., Hevrøy, E.M., Olsvik, P.A., Fontanillas, R., Breck, O., Waagbø, R. 2014. Dietary histidine requirement to reduce the risk and severity of cataracts is higher than the requirement for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts, independently of the dietary lipid source. British Journal of Nutrition., 111(10), 1759-1772.

• Eide, M., Karlsen, O.A., Kryvi, H., Olsvik, P.A., Goksøyr, A. 2014. Precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): An in vitro system for studying the effects of environmental contaminants. Aquatic Toxicology, 153, 110-115.

Olsvik, P.A., Vikeså, V., Lie, K.K., Hevrøy, E.M. 2013. Transcriptional responses to temperature and low oxygen stress in Atlantic salmon studied with next-generation sequencing technology. BMC Genomics. 2013, 14(1):817.

Olsvik, P.A., Lindgren, M., Maage, A. 2013. Mercury contamination in deep-water fish: Transcriptional responses in tusk (Brosme brosme) from a fjord gradient. Aquatic Toxicology, 144-145:172-85.

• Bustin, S.A., Benes, V., Garson, J., Hellemans, J., Huggett, J., Kubista, M., Mueller, R., Nolan, T., Pfaffl, M.W., Shipley, G., Wittwer, C.T., Schjerling, P., Day, P.J., Abreu, M., Aguado, B., Beaulieu, J.F., Beckers, A., Bogaert, S., Browne, J.A., Carrasco-Ramiro, F., Ceelen, L., Ciborowski, K., Cornillie, P., Coulon, S., Cuypers, A., De Brouwer, S., De Ceuninck, L., De Craene, J., De Naeyer, H., De Spiegelaere, W., Deckers, K., Dheedene, A., Durinck, K., Ferreira-Teixeira, M., Fieuw, A., Gallup, J.M., Gonzalo-Flores, S., Goossens, K., Heindryckx, F., Herring, E., Hoenicka, H., Icardi, L., Jaggi, R., Javad, F., Karampelias, M., Kibenge, F., Kibenge, M., Kumps, C., Lambertz, I., Lammens, T., Markey, A., Messiaen, P., Mets, E., Morais, S., Mudarra-Rubio, A., Nakiwala, J., Nelis, H., Olsvik, P.A., Pérez-Novo, C., Plusquin, M., Remans, T., Rihani, A., Rodrigues-Santos, P., Rondou, P., Sanders, R., Schmidt-Bleek, K., Skovgaard, K., Smeets, K., Tabera, L., Toegel, S., Van Acker, T., Van den Broeck, W., Van der Meulen, J., Van Gele, M., Van Peer, G., Van Poucke, M., Van Roy, N., Vergult, S., Wauman, J., Tshuikina-Wiklander, M., Willems, E., Zaccara, S., Zeka, F., Vandesompele, J. 2013. The need for transparency and good practices in the qPCR literature. Nature Methods, 10(11), 1063-7.

Olsvik, P.A., Hemre, G.I., Waagbo, R., 2013. Exploring early micronutrient deficiencies in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by next-generation sequencing technology - From black box to functional genomics. PLoS ONE 8, e69461.

Olsvik, P.A., Samuelsen, O.B., Erdal, A., Holmelid, B., Lunestad, B.T., 2013. Toxicological assessment of the anti-salmon lice drug diflubenzuron on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 105, 27-43.

Olsvik, P.A., Berg, V., Lyche, J.L. 2013. Transcriptional profiling in burbot (Lota lota) from Lake Mjosa - A Norwegian Lake contaminated by several organic pollutants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 92, 94-103.

• Saele, O., Nordgreen, A., Olsvik, P.A., Hjelle, J.I., Harboe, T., Hamre, K. 2013. Toxic effects of dietary hydrolysed lipids: an in vivo study on fish larvae. British Journal of Nutrition, 109, 1071-1081.

• Bratberg, M., Olsvik, P.A., Edvardsen, R.B., Brekken, H.K., Vadla, R., Meier, S. 2013. Effects of oil pollution and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on glycerophospholipids in liver and brain of male Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Chemosphere 90, 2157-2171.

• Skjærven, K.H., Penglase, S., Olsvik, P.A., Hamre, K. 2013. Redox regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos developing under normal and heat-stressed conditions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 57C, 29-38.

• Yadetie, F., Karlsen, O.A., Lanzén, A., Berg, K., Olsvik, P.A., Hogstrand, C., Goksøyr, A. 2013. Global transcriptome analysis of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) liver after in vivo methylmercury exposure suggests effects on energy metabolism pathways. Aquatic Toxicology, 126, 314-325.

• Heier, L.S., Teien, H.C., Oughton, D., Tollefsen, K.E., Olsvik, P.A., Rosseland, B.O., Lind, O.C., Farmen, E., Skipperud, L., Salbu, B. 2013. Sublethal effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminium and gamma radiation. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 121, 33-42.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Nordtug, T., Hansen, B.H. 2012. Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae than mechanically dispersed oil? BMC Genomics, 2012, 13:702, doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-702.

• Holen, E., Lie, K.K., Araujo, P., Olsvik, P.A. 2012. Pathogen recognition and mechanisms in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) head kidney cells: Bacteria (LPS) and virus (poly I:C) signals through different pathways and affect distinct genes. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 33(2), 267-276.

• Nøstbakken, O.J., Bredal, I.L., Olsvik, P.A., Huang, T.S., Torstensen, B.E. 2012. Effect of marine omega 3 fatty acids on methylmercury-induced toxicity in fish and mammals in vitro. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Volume 2012, Article ID 417652, 13 pages, doi:10.1155/2012/417652.

Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H.G., Hylland, K., Eriksen, D.Ø., Holen, E. 2012. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 109, 84-93.

• Larsen, P.F., Nielsen, E.E., Meier, K., Olsvik, P.A., Hansen, M.M., Loeschcke, V. 2012. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress. Biochemical Genetics. DOI 10.1007/s10528-011-9490-0.

• Nøstbakken, O.J., Martin, S.A.M., Cash, P., Torstensen, B., Amlund, H., Olsvik, P.A. 2012. Dietary methylmercury alters the proteome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kidney. Aquatic Toxicology, 108, 70-77.

Olsvik, P.A., Amlund, H., Torstensen, B. 2011. Dietary lipids modulate methylmercury toxicity in Atlantic salmon. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(12), 3258-71.

Olsvik, P.A., Hansen, B.H., Nordtug, T., Moren, M., Holen, E., Lie, K.K. 2011. Transcriptional profiles provide evidence of low contribution by oil droplets to toxicity of oil dispersion in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -C, 154, 333-345.

• Krøvel, A.V., Winterthun, S., Holen, E., Olsvik, P.A. 2011. Development of a co-culture model for in vitro toxicological and nutritional studies in Atlantic salmon. In Vitro Toxicology, 25, 1143-1152.

• Søfteland, L., Petersen, K., Stavrum, A.-K., Wu, T., Olsvik, P.A. 2011. Toxicity assessment of PBDE congeners 47, 153 and 154 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes. Aquatic Toxicology, 105, 246-263.

• Remø, S.C., Olsvik, P.A., Torstensen, B.E., Amlund, H., Breck, O., Waagbø, R. 2011. Susceptibility of Atlantic salmon lenses to hydrogen peroxide oxidation ex vivo after being fed diets with vegetable oil and methylmercury. Experimental Eye Research, 92, 414-424.

• Skjærven, K.H., Olsvik, P.A., Finn, N., Holen, E., Hamre, K. 2011. Ontogenetic expression of maternal and zygotic genes in Atlantic cod embryos under ambient and thermally stressed conditions. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-B, 159, 196-205.

• Hevrøy E.M., Azpeleta, C., Kaiya, H., Lanzén, A., Espe, M., Olsvik, P.A. 2011. Effects of short-term starvation on ghrelin, GH-IGF system, and IGF-binding proteins in Atlantic salmon. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry-C, 37, 217-232.

Olsvik, P.A., Waagbø, R., Pedersen, S., Meier, S. 2011. Transcriptional effects of dietary exposure of oil-contaminated Calanus finmarchicus on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 74, 508-528.

Olsvik, P.A., Brattås, M., Lie, K.K., Goksøyr, A. 2011. Transcriptional responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after exposure to mercury-contaminated sediments obtained near the wreck of the German WW2 submarine U-864, and from Bergen Harbor, Western Norway. Chemosphere, 83, 552-563.

• Lie, K.K., Hansen, A.-C., Eroldogan, O.T., Olsvik, P.A., Rosenlund, G., Hemre, G.-I. 2011. Expression of genes regulating protein metabolism in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), was altered when including high diet levels of plant proteins. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17, 33-43.

Olsvik, P.A., Torstensen, B.E. Hemre, G.-I., Sanden, M., Waagbø, R. 2011. Hepatic oxidative stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) transferred from a diet based on marine feed ingredients to a diet based on vegetable plant ingredients. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17, e424-e436.

• Sæle, Ø., Nordgreen, A., Olsvik, P.A., Hamre, K. 2011. Characterisation and expression of secretory phospholipase A2 group IB during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). British Journal of Nutrition, 105(2), 228-37.

Olsvik, P.A., Kroglund, F., Finstad, B., Kristensen, T. 2010. Effects of the fungicide azoxystrobin on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(8), 1852-61.

• Holth, T.F., Thorsen, A., Olsvik, P.A., Hylland, K. 2010. Long-term exposure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to produced water components: growth, reproduction and gene expression. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 67(10), 1685-1698.

• Bustin, S.A., Beaulieu, J.-F., Huggett, J., Jaggi, R., Kibenge, F.S.B., Olsvik, P.A., Penning, L.C., Toegel, S. 2010. MIQE précis: Practical implementation of minimum standard guidelines for fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR experiments. BMC Molecular Biology, 11:74.

• Sæle, Ø., Nordgreen, A., Olsvik, P.A., Hamre, K. 2010. Characterization and expression of digestive neutral lipases during ontogeny of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -A. Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 157(3), 252-259.

• Berntssen, M.H.G., Olsvik, P.A., Torstensen, B.E., Julshamn, K., Goksøyr, A., Johansen, J., Sigholt, T., Joerum, N., Jakobsen, J.-V., Lundebye, A.-K., Lock, E.-J. 2010. Removing persistent organic pollutants while maintaining long chain omega-3 fatty acid in farmed Atlantic salmon by use of decontaminated fish oils during a full cycle production. Chemosphere, 81(2), 242-52.

• Trösse, C., Waagbø, R., Breck, O., Olsvik, P.A. 2010. Optimisation of gene expression analysis in Atlantic salmon lenses by refining sampling strategy and tissue storage. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36(4), 1217-1225.

• Penglase, S., Nordgreen, A. Van der Meeren, T., Olsvik, P.A., Sæle, Ø., Helland , S. Sweetman, J.W., Hamre, K. 2010. Increasing the levels of selenium in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis 'Cayman') enhances the mRNA expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase in cod larvae (Gadus morhua L). Aquaculture, 306, 259-269.

• Finne, E.F., Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H.G., Hylland, K., Tollefsen, K.-E. 2010. Oxidative stress responses in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to pro-oxidants and a complex environmental sample. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 151(4), 431-438.

Olsvik, P.A., Nordtug, T., Altin, D., Lie, K.K., Overrein, I., Hansen, B.H. 2010. Transcriptional effects of dispersed oil and water-soluble fractions of oil on glutathione S-transferases in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. Chemosphere, 79, 905-913.

Olsvik, P.A., Heier, L.S., Teien, H.-C., Rosseland, B.O., Salbu, B. 2010. Effects of combined gamma-irradiation and metal (Al+Cd) exposures in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Journal of Environmental Radioactivty, 101, 230-236.

• Søfteland, L., Holen, E., Olsvik, P.A. 2010. Toxicogenomic evaluation of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) primary hepatocyte cell cultures exposed to BNF, PCDD and Cd. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 151(4), 401-411.

• Krøvel, A.V., Søfteland, L., Torstensen, B.E., Olsvik, P.A. 2010. Endosulfan in vitro toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes obtained from fish fed either fish oil or vegetable oil. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 151(2), 175-186.

• Trösse, C., Waagbø, R., Breck, O., Stavrum, A.-K., Petersen, K., Olsvik, P.A. 2009. Genome-wide transcription analysis of histidine-related cataract in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Molecular Vision, 15, 1332-1350.

• Søfteland, L., Eide, I., Olsvik, P.A. 2009. Factorial design applied for multiple endpoint toxicity evaluation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes. Toxicology in Vitro, 23, 1455-1464.

• Huang, T.-S., Olsvik, P.A., Krøvel, A.V., Torstensen, B. 2009. Cloning and stress-induced expression of protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 154(4), 435-442.

Olsvik, P.A. & Holen, E. 2009. Characterization of an Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic stem cell cDNA library. BMC Research Notes, 2:74.

• Lie, K.K., Meier, S., Olsvik, P.A. 2009. Effects of environmental relevant doses of pollutants from offshore oil production on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 150(2), 141-149.

• Lie, K.K., Lanzén, A., Breilid, H., Olsvik, P.A. 2009. Gene expression profiling in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) from two contaminated sites using a custom-made cDNA microarray. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28(8), 1711-1721.

• Torstensen, B.E., Nanton, D., Olsvik, P.A., Sundvold, H., Stubhaug, I. 2009. Gene expression of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), fatty acid transport proteins (cd36 and FATP) and ²-oxidation related genes in various Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) tissues - Effects of replacing dietary 100% fish oil with a 100% plant oil blend. Aquaculture Nutrition, 15, 440-451.

• Sanden, M., Olsvik, P.A. 2009. Intestinal cellular localization of PCNA protein and CYP1A mRNA in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. exposed to a model toxicant. BMC Physiology, 9:3.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Sturve, J., Hasselberg, L., Andersen, O.-K. 2009. Transcriptional effects of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and PBDE-47 in liver of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Chemosphere, 75, 360-367.

• Sæle, Ø., Nordgreen, A., Hamre, K., Olsvik P.A. 2009. Evaluation of candidate reference genes in qPCR studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) ontogeny, with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B, 152(1), 94-101.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Goksøyr, A., Midtun, T., Frantzen, S., Maage, A. 2009. Are Atlantic cod in Store Lungegårdsvann, a seawater recipient in Bergen, affected by environmental contaminants? A qRT-PCR survey. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A, 72, 140-154.

• Salaberria, I., Hansen, B.H., Asensio, V., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A., Jensen, B.M. 2009. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 234(1), 98-106.

• Torstensen, B.E., Espe, M., Sanden, M., Stubhaug, I., Waagbø, R., Hemre, G.-I., Fontanilles, R., Nordgarden, U., Hevrøy, E.M., Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H.G. 2008. Novel production of Atlantic salmon protein based on combined replacement of fish meal and fish plant meal and vegetable blends. Aquaculture, 285, 193-200.

Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., Lie, K.K. 2008. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of wild populations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. BMC Research Notes, 1:47.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Mykkeltvedt, E. Samuelsen, O.B., Petersen, K., Stavrum, A.K., Lunestad, B.T. 2008. Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). BMC Pharmacology, 8:16.

• Finne, E.F., Olsvik, P.A., Berntssen, M.H.G., Hylland, K., Tollefsen, K.E. 2008. The partial pressure of oxygen affects biomarkers of oxidative stress in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Toxicology In Vitro, 22(6), 1657-1661.

• Waagbø, R., Hosfeld, C.D., Fivelstad, S., Olsvik, P.A., Breck, O. 2008. The impact of different water gas levels on cataract formation, muscle and lens free amino acids, and lens antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein mRNA abundance in smolting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A, 149, 396-404.

• Krøvel, A.V., Søfteland, L.I.R., Torstensen, B., Olsvik, P.A. 2008. Transcriptional effects of PFOS in isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 141(1), 14-22.

• Larsen, P.F., Nielsen, E.E., Koed, A., Thomsen, D.S., Olsvik, P.A., Loeschcke, V. 2008. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). BMC Genetics, 9:12.

• Sagstad, A., Hansen, A.-C., Sanden, M., Olsvik, P.A., Hemre, G.-I. 2007. Evaluation of stress-induced responses in Atlantic salmon fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize) in diet, compared to its isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Journal of Fish Diseases, 30, 201-212.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Sæle, Ø., Sanden, M. 2007. Spatial transcription of CYP1A in fish liver. BMC Physiology, 7:12.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Hevrøy, E.M. 2007. Do anesthetics and sampling strategies affect transcription analysis of fish tissues? BMC Molecular Biology, 8:48.

• Hevrøy, E. M., El-Mowafi, A., Taylor, R.G., Olsvik, P.A., Norberg, B., Espe, M. 2007. Lysine intake affects gene expression of anabolic hormones in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 152, 39-46.

• Hansen, B.H., Rømma, S., Garmo, Ø.A., Pedersen, S.A., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2007. Induction and activity of oxidative stress-related proteins during waterborne Cd/Zn exposure in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Chemosphere, 67, 2241-2249.

• Hansen, B.H., Garmo, Ø.A., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2007. Gill metal binding and stress gene expression in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to metal environments: The effects of pre-exposure in natural populations. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 26 (5), 944-953.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Stavrum, A.-K., Meier, S. 2007. Gene expression profiling in liver and gills of Zebrafish exposed to produced water. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 87(3), 195-210.

Olsvik, P.A., Torstensen, B., Berntssen, M.H.G. 2007. Effects of complete replacement of fish oil with plant oil on gastrointestinal cell death, proliferation and transcription of eight genes encoding proteins responding to cellular stress in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology, 71, 550-568.

• Hansen, B.H., Rømma, S., Søfteland, L.I.R., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2006. Induction and activity of oxidative stress-related proteins during waterborne Cu-exposure in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Chemosphere, 65(10), 1707-1714.

Olsvik, P.A., Kristensen, T., Waagbo, R., Tollefsen, K.-E., Rosseland, B.O., Toften, H. 2006. Effects of hypo- and hyperoxia on transcription levels of five stress genes and the glutathione system in liver of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 2893-2901.

• Hansen, A.-C., Rosenlund, G., Karlsen, Ø., Olsvik, P.A., Hemre, G.-I. 2006. The effect of vegetable protein on macronutrient digestibility, gut and liver histology and heat shock protein transcription in cod (Gadus morhua L.). Aquaculture Research, 37, 773-784.

• Hansen, B.H., Rømma, S., Garmo, Ø., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2006. Antioxidant stress proteins and their gene expression in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from three rivers with different heavy metal levels. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology-C, 143C, 263-274.

• Hevrøy, E.M., Jordal, A.L., Hordvik, I., Hemre, G.I., Olsvik, P.A. 2006. Myosin heavy chain mRNA expression correlates more with muscle protein accretion than growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 252, 453-461.

Olsvik, P.A., Lie, K.K., Jordal, A.-E.L., Nilsen, T.O., Hordvik, I. 2005. Evaluation of potential reference genes in qRT-PCR studies of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. BMC Molecular Biology, 6:21.

Olsvik, P.A., Kristensen, T., Waagbø, R., Rosseland, B.O., Tollefsen, K.-E., Baeverfjord, G., Berntssen, M.H.G. 2005. mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidative stress in liver of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar exposed to water hyperoxic conditions during smoltification. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 141, 314-323.

• Wilhelmsen, T.H., Hansen, B.H., Holten, V., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2004. Improved separation of metallothionein isoforms by the presence of cyclodextrin in capillary zone electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1051, 237-245.

• Wilhelmsen, T.W., Olsvik, P.A., Hansen, B.H., Andersen, R.A. 2002. Evidence of oligomerization of metallothioneins in their functional state. Journal of Chromatography, 979 (1-2), 249-254.

• Wilhelmsen, T.W., Olsvik, P.A., Andersen, R.A. 2002. Metallothioneins from horse kidney studied by separation with capillary zone electrophoresis below and above the isoelectric points. Talanta, 57(4), 707-720.

Olsvik, P.A., Hindar, K., Zachariassen, K.E., Andersen, R.A. 2001. Brown trout Salmo trutta metallothioneins as biomarkers for metal exposure in two Norwegian rivers. Biomarkers, 6(4), 274-288.

• Gundersen, P., Olsvik, P.A., Steinnes, E. 2001. Variations in heavy metal concentrations and speciation in the two mining-polluted streams in Central Norway. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(5), 978-984.

Olsvik, P.A., Gundersen, P.A., Andersen, R.A., Zachariassen, K.E. 2001. Metal accumulation and metallothionein in brown trout, Salmo trutta, from two Norwegian rivers differently contaminated by Cd, Cu and Zn. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-C, 128, 189-201.

Olsvik, P.A., Gundersen, P., Andersen, R.A., Zachariassen, K.E. 2000. Metal accumulation and metallothionein in two populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta, exposed to different natural environments during a run-off episode. Aquatic Toxicology, 50(4), 301-316.

• Wilhelmsen, T.W., Olsvik, P.A., Teigen, S.W., Andersen, R.A. 1998. Metallothionein isoforms from horse, rabbit and rat separated by capillary zone electrophoresis at low pH. Talanta, 46, 291-300.